If an activity is covered by Article 56, a restriction may be justified under Article 52 or the general requirements developed by the Court of Justice. In Alpine Investments BV v Minister van Financiën, a company that sold product futures (with Merrill Lynch and another banking company) attempted to challenge a Dutch law prohibiting cold-acquisition clients. The Court held that the legitimate aim of the Dutch prohibition was to prevent `undesirable developments in securities trading`, including the protection of the consumer against aggressive sales tactics and, therefore, to maintain confidence in the Dutch markets. In the case of Omega Spielhallen GmbH against Bonn, the company “Laserdrom” was banned by the Bonn City Council. He bought fake laser gun services from a British company called Pulsar Ltd, but locals had protested the “killing game.” The Court held that the German constitutional value of human dignity underlying the prohibition was regarded as a justified restriction on the freedom to provide services. In the case of Liga Portuguesa de Futebol v Santa Casa da Misericórdia de Lisboa, the Court also held that the public monopoly on gambling and a penalty were justified for a Gibraltar company that had sold gambling services on the Internet, in order to avoid fraud and gambling, where people`s opinions were very different.  The ban was proportionate, as it was an appropriate and necessary approach to tackle the serious fraud problems that arise on the internet. The Services Directive codifies a group of justifications in Article 16, which has developed the case-law. The short- and medium-term effects of the formation of a common market are mainly felt by an increase in trade between Member States. TRADE CREATION is usually linked to a redistribution of resources in the market, which favours the least expensive supply sites, and to a fall in prices resulting from the elimination of customs duties and the lowering of production costs. (See the benefits of trade) Only the 27 EU Member States participate fully in the European internal market, while several others have benefited from different degrees of access to it. The internal market has been extended to Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, with the exception of the Agreement on the European Economic Area (EEA) and Switzerland through bilateral agreements. The exceptions in which these EEA states do not participate in the EU internal market are: Accelerate the economic growth and development of partner countries by facilitating the free movement of people and workers by adopting common policies and procedures.
One of the main advantages of a common market is, in addition to the abolition of customs duties between Member States, the free movement of persons, goods, services and capital. Therefore, a common market is often considered an “internal market”, as it allows the free movement of factors of production without the barriers created by national borders. Britain`s future relationship with the internal market is unknown after the UK`s withdrawal from the EU in January 2020. The UK will continue to participate in the internal market (and thus the four freedoms) and the customs union until the end of the transition period in December 2020. Since 2015, the European Commission has been working to create an energy market  and for the defence industry.  Trade diversion occurs when effective non-members are ousted from the common market. In addition, a country may have low wages when faced with an influx of factors of production for which supply exceeds demand. . . .