17 Oct

Wto Agreement Came Into Force From

(a) the agreements listed in Annexes 1A, 1B, 1C, 2 and 3 to the Agreement and in Section III contain institutional arrangements and final provisions covering relations with other WTO agreements, the accession process of Members of the Agreement after entry into force, the WTO Committee on Trade Facilitation and the National Trade Facilitation Committees to be established in all WTO Members. The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade is an international agreement of the World Trade Organization. It was negotiated in the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and entered into force with the establishment of the WTO at the end of 1994. The aim is to ensure that technical negotiations and standards as well as testing and certification procedures do not create unnecessary barriers to trade. [113] The new work program included negotiations and other work on non-agricultural tariffs, trade and environment, WTO anti-dumping and subsidy rules, trade facilitation, transparency in government procurement, intellectual property, and a number of issues raised by developing countries as challenges in implementing WTO agreements. A WTO Committee on Trade and Development responds to the specific needs of developing countries. Its responsibilities include the implementation of the WTO Agreements, technical cooperation and the increased participation of developing countries in the global trading system. Seven rounds of GATT negotiations took place (1949-1979). The first real GATT trade cycles (1947 to 1960) focused on further tariff reductions. Then, in the mid-sixties, the Kennedy Round produced a GATT anti-dumping agreement and a section on development.

The Tokyo Round of the seventies was the first major attempt to remove trade barriers that do not exist in the form of tariffs and to improve the system by adopting a series of agreements on non-tariff barriers that, in some cases, interpreted existing GATT rules and, in others, opened up completely new avenues. Since not all GATT members accepted these plurilateral agreements, they were often informally referred to as “codes”. (The Uruguay Round amended several of these codes, turning them into multilateral commitments accepted by all WTO members. Only four of them remained plurilateral (those for government procurement, beef, civil aircraft and dairy products), but in 1997 WTO members agreed to terminate the agreements on beef and dairy products, leaving only two. [27]) Despite attempts in the mid-1950s and 1960s to establish some form of institutional mechanism for international trade, the GATT continued to function for nearly half a century as a semi-institutionalized settlement of multilateral treaties on a provisional basis. [28] This leads to a more prosperous, peaceful and responsible economic world […].